Norgaard and York found that there was a correlation between nations that tended to be more favorable to women in society and government, also tended to be environmentally conscious. “We reviewed a number of compelling theoretical reasons to expect that nations, where women have greater political power, will be more inclined toward supporting environmental protection.” (Norgaard and York, 519). They concluded that when women are more involved in the government the government tended to take a stance that protected the environment from continual degradation. Norgaard and York concluded that is the world was to fight the war on climate that women should become a more integrated part of the government, “These results suggest that theories of gender can contribute to both our understanding of state behavior and the relationship between society and the natural environment”(519). Their suggestion center around the idea that women tend to be more pro-environmental, more likely to participate socially, disproportionately suffer from environmental degradation, and that the resolutions of both sexism and environmental downfall are linked and can benefit from one another. 

Although I believe there is a lot of individual validity in their statements, for example, I believe women are a vital part of not only society but government affairs, as well that I believe in protection for the environment. Where the two lose me is the causation between the two. I think the difference is masked by the overall changing times and progression. For the most part, if you look at countries on the forefront of fighting climate change tend to be on the more post-industrial age of their economies, more progressive in their beliefs, and more accepting of change in the current world. For the most part, just by using the chart provided in the article placed below, the countries who have some of the highest environmentalism levels are also some of the most progressive ideological nations in the world, with cultures that reflect a respect for others and lives. These countries tend not only to respect women and place them at a higher level than most other nations but generally are accepting of other cultures, peoples, changes in ideas, and in some have a strong more significant culture associated with the environment. I think the correlation between women being in government and the increased environmentalism has to do with the countries willingness as a whole to accept new, changing ideas, that are seen as progressive; and as more people are able to participate in government more ideas are shared and collaborated with. When more people and brainpower is being used toward the goal of running a country it is less likely for individuals to take advantage of their positions and for new ideas to be expressed and discovered for the countries’ use. This increase of participation, thus brain power, combined with the countries’ acceptance to change in ideals and generally ideology gives these countries an advantage when looking between the correlation between women and environmentalism.

The other point that troubles me with this data is how in some cases how contradictory it is when looking at countries like China. Where women have very little government roles,  despite being high in gender equality they are very low in environmentalism.  Or when you examine the highest-ranking environmentalism country, Spain, where gender equality is outside the top 15 in the world, or Jordan whose environmentalism is ranked 55th but has almost no gender quality. I think although there may be truth in the idea that countries with higher gender equality may be a shift more towards an environmentalist agenda, but I think to say that just because women are involved in the government and treated more equally does not mean that that is the driving force for why these countries act as they do. I think a larger role can be shown with a thing like GDP which indicates that when increased to a level above 5,000$ per capita that people generally begin to show more concern for their own and environmental health.”Environmental degradation overall (combined resource depletion and pollution) is
worse at levels of income per capita under $1,000. Between $1,000 and $3,000, both the economy and environmental degradation undergo dramatic structural change from rural to urban, from agricultural to industrial. A second structural transformation begins to take place as countries surpass a per capita income of $10,000 and begin to shift from energy-intensive heavy industry into services and information-technology intensive industry” [Panayotou (P), 1993, page 14]. (Ekins, 1)

The first article I picked was for a woman that I have been following politically recently, Alexandria Ocasio-Cortez of New York. One of the main reasons I have a lot of political respect and follow representative Cortez was her willingness to stand up for an issue that is often overlooked and mispresented. Some may even call the green party as political suicide because if the ramification or are even thought to have led to an economic slowing the politician is often quickly cast out, especially one as young as herself. She was willing to stand up for the issue she believed in and make a push for an idea that is often shunned or rarely politically fought hard for. She not only fought hard for the Green New Deal, was but continued to fight, raise awareness on the issue, and add to her political supporters in the issue. She was willing to do a lot of the work that many others were not, risking her political career to do so. She represents the idea that as women come up in terms of their role in society they will continually raise the issue of environmental protection, that York and Norgaard expressed.

(the picture below is a nytimes articles, that should be hyperlinked to the picture, if not )

The next lady I bring up is Greta Thurberg, I decided not to attach an exact article but rather just use her journey in general to emphasis my point. She is the next step in ecofeminism, with the push for women to not only voice their opinion but for it to be heard, focused on, examined, utilized, and worked with. She continually voices her objections for the lack of environmental integrity we have as a species, believing we are living far beyond our means. Without young women like her, there would be no future for the party or people to engage with younger audiences, who are often the most concerned with climate change and global warming.

The other reason I decided to use Greta is to bring up her opposition, another young female named Naomi Seibt, dubbed with anti-Greta. She has used the same platforms to voice an opposing viewpoint on the subject, that more often times than not contradicts Greta. Naomi brings up the point of the utilization of petroleum in more aspect in our lives than we realize, and the general viewpoints of the opposition. What strikes me about this is, and other women in political power for often opposed environmental actions, for example, Sarah Palin. The idea that I think should be expressed even more is that women should be able to make their own opinions and formulate their own thought, then express them however they see fit. I think the more important issues to focus on is allowing all people to express their ideas, study what they wish, and how they wish. The more information that is out there, and available the more people are able to learn about the issues at hand. I think what holds environmentalism back the most, is not that men are often the ones in power because many women come to the same anti-environmentalism that many men come to, but rather a particular nations ability to accept change, the difference in opinion, and the fact their first notions or intuitions may be wrong.

A couple of quotes and figures, from Female Labor, Western Culture and Growth in the Gulf Cooperation Council Countries.

Witte, Mark David. “Female Labor, Western Culture and Growth in the Gulf Cooperation Council Countries.” Review of Middle East Economics and Finance, vol. 7, no. 1, Apr. 2011. EBSCOhost, doi:

“Moreover, a 1 percent increase in the female percentage of total labor creates GDP growth equivalent to a 2 percent increase in the international price of oil.”

“the paper finds a positive relationship between the female percentage of total labor and per capita U.S. book expenditures.”

I Chose this article to represent the picture because it shows that women of the world cannot be ignored, and for many countries pose an extremely viable form of labor and capital. The more people working on ideas that better the country the better the country. Women come with a different viewpoint and perspective, offering ideas and ways to work that many men don’t think of. They also represent 50% of the total population, which is a significant market share and opportunity for growth among nations.



P Ekins The Kuznets curve for the environment and economic growth: Examining the evidence
Environment and Planning A, 29 (1997), pp. 805-830


Where does life begin? An enduring question that has riddled not the only philosophical community, and followers of certain religions, but now everyday man. A question that fuels the debate on whether or not abortion should be legal is one that has sparked commotion throughout our country. Some believe that life begins at first breath, others at conception, and others at different stages of pregnancy, the argument for whether or not abortion should be legal and when is centered around the question. Where does life begin? Beginning with a look at the actual anatomy of a fetus throughout pregnancy and see exactly what happens and when. Major points in the baby’s development, key parts of pregnancy as a whole, focused around the life of the fetus, including potential risks to mothers. An introduction into some religions and philosophies on how people view human life and where it may begin for the followers of these sects is important to understand both sides of the argument. For example, dealing with ideas of fate, predetermined destiny, existentialism; opposed to atheists and someone who follows a stricter view of science and being. Even within the scientific community, it is argued when life is truly life if it is justifiable to say that a human that was never capable of breathing on its own can even be considered living. The issue is continually debated, the timeline for what we understand about birth and when we are able to bring children who are able to survive continues to change with advancements in medical knowledge and technology. I think this illustrates the crossroads of these issues, is that how can one confidently say when a life begins. The topic of abortion is fought on multiple fronts, first if it should even be allowed, next when life actually becomes life, and third when the latest someone should be allowed to abort and if it justifiably murder. I think when debating this issue oftentimes fundamental ideologies become an issue, often leading the argument down a road of what one believes to be true. The real issue with abortion to me is that outlawing it fundamentally goes against people’s personal freedoms and sovereignty, which in the U.S is an issue that has and will be argued upon forever. The general community cannot come to a consensus about when exactly a human life begins, therefore arguing either side for if abortion should be legal becomes pointless because of the lack of fundamental agreement. Whether or not a woman should get an abortion is a personal and family matter, and the right to make decisions for oneself should be held to a higher standard than personal values. I think moving forward the most appropriate way of dealing with the issue is to give people the opportunity to do what they wish without potentially harming another person. Meaning that if the fetus is capable of living at least somewhat on its own the opportunity should be present for the woman to have the child and be able to give it up for another family to cherish and enjoy.  But this opportunity should not infringe on a woman’s and families’ right to choose the best outcome for themselves, we must maintain people’s personal rights to believe and practice what they wish.

As an ecofeminist, the argument over the matter of aborotion is an argument about personal liberties, and the fight against the systematic oppression of females in history. The particular case Roe V. Wade in the United States put the matter of decision to the individual woman’s hands, given the authority to end life before it takes its first breath. Roe V. Wade was crucial in the transition for women to take control of their own physical selves, that were so often abused by men for sexual and visual pleasure. But the battle is two-fold, in literary terms, it is a battle of self v. society, and then a battle self v. self. Before women could even begin to truly begin to understand the complete complexity of abortion, and explore the topic as a group openly and honestly. Women first had to establish in society the rights of a woman’s body to be of her own, making decisions independently of male control. Personally, I feel that it is very possible in the next 50-100 year legislation to be something that is completely controlled by women on the matter. This could have political and social repercussions as well, but it is a viewpoint many women strongly agree with and would politically advocate for. The other battle though is a self versus self one, where a woman must ,under no societal controls, make the decision to not have a child. This is an issue that is very emotionally involved, and a moral dilemma that takes into account every factor of life present and future. Hawkins argues that under the true ecofeminist perspective that being pro-abortion is being anti-feminst, because the value one is supposed to hold on life. Even though potential overpopulation threats global welfare, the killing of another living being is against true ecofeminist ethics. 

Although, I do agree under the perspective of true ecofeminism, like being a vegetarian, abortion violates their ethical code. But my personel feeling on abortion is that there are many circumstances why a women, or couple may need or want an abortion. To be  quite frank, many people may not be fit to be parents at that stage in their life. The likelihood of a child being raised in a stable home, with parent(s) financially and emotionally being able to take care of them only increases with age and maturity. This is not to say young parents cannot, but many are still developing emotionally themselves, and have done little in career progression. These are things that contribute to greater social issues that people refer to as cycles; a young parent has a child that is born into poverty in a home that is most likely unstable if in a position where the parents live on their own, or under supervised. The parent(s) themselves has a lot less life experience and knowledge to properly care for the child in all aspects of life, therefore the child could develop emotional gaps or stunts, skewed visions of life. Raising a child is extremely stressful, this combined with stress of life can be overwhelming and difficult to deal with, sometimes resulting in parents abandoning children. These scenarios take an emotional toll on a child which can result from them making similar mistakes as their parents, because that is what they know. I feel that if parents or a woman does not feel they want a child, or properly care for it they should not be forced to do so. It is traumatic enough to go through with an event I imagine, making it more difficult, or illegal should not be another issue to be dealt with. 

Women-Nature Association

One of the major ideas that stuck out to me with this section especially with Adams interview as the quote, “Women are animalized and animals are sexualized and feminized. ” (13). Here we have a piece of chicken sitting on a plate. But the display of the meat is with its legs up in the air, strung up, with its rear hanging out in the open. The pose of the chicken reminds me that of something that would be displayed in an adult magazine full of women. I feel as if the two mirror each other in ways beyond just posing. We idolize, romanticize, an over sexualized both women and meat, we have a desire for it to look sexy and eye appealing. We treat another body and another life as an object that we should and do consume.  Adams quotes, “Meat is like pornography: before it was someone’s fun, it was someone’s life.”. In order for people to enjoy meat or enjoy pornography, it has to come something else.  Although, this is not entirely always a true or fair comparison because there are women who make a full choice to be in magazines and want to display their bodies openly in the nude.  But this is always an expectation that society puts upon women for men to enjoy. Men want to enjoy women on a platter, in her bare skin, ass out, legs up, with no arms for defense or face to speak, just like in the photo above.  If this was an advertisement it speaks to all of the meat-eater as being a sexy display of food, but also subconsciously reminds us of the woman on the platter for men.

This is an example of an actual advertisement that over sexualizes animals, and objectify women in a sense. This promotion for a tattoo and barbecue themed festival used to promote the event to a certain crowd, people interested in tattoos and meat. But the advertisement does this in a way that doesn’t exemplify how great the food will be, how well done tattoos artists are, how fun the event will be, it instead uses a picture of a female pig given female human characteristics. The pig is given a large rear in a rather skimpy thong, giving the viewer a seducing wink, covered head to toe in tattoos. The pig is made to look like a sexy as possible according to society’s standard to attract males. The advertising objectifies women, subtle saying that this is the way you should dress and look when coming to the event. The pig is also serving food on a platter to the viewer, another way of subtly implying that this is a woman’s place; to look attractive in skimpy clothes while serving food. Men and advertising firms continually project these ideas of women should be. This projection makes women feel as if they don’t have a large ass hanging out of their underwear and serving men food then they are not good enough, or up to men standards.

This last image, and personally my favorite from the gallery. Why this image is my favorite is because of the humor involved in it, it is the rapper Ludicrous sitting in front of a larger plate of wings, with hot size, seasonings, and fries. Why this picture is funny to me is just the overall ridiculousness of the image and absurdity of the shot.  But the picture does still holds true to some of the ideas that relate the way we as a society view women and animals. Relating back to the first image, like mentioned before “Men want to enjoy women on a platter, in her bare skin, ass out, legs up, with no arms for defense or face to speak” we notice that there is no concern or sight of the women’s other bodies parts just her bare leg. The rapper is salting the leg as if to consume it, this could be taken in several lights. If you wanted to take it from Ludicrous artistically point, it could be seen as a double entendre or innuendo as to say he wants to consume her, a euphemism for a sexual act. When we look at the image through the ecofeminist perspective we see it as a way to objectify the women using her body, with a comparison to what many consider to be delicious fried chicken. The image projects an idea that women are meant for nothing but man’s consumption, she is meant to give herself up, and be added to (the salt) by men. She is nothing more than her body, made to feed man’s sexual appetite. It also projects this idea that this is how women’s legs should look, shaven, skinny, nice looking, bare, with a nice pair of heels. I believe this is an add for a brand of chicken wings, using a celebrity to help sell their brand. They uses the image to help increase their brand identity, using sex, fame, and womanizing culture to aid in the sales of chicken to mainly men, in this case mostly likely African-American men by using a black artist to sell an stereotypical image to society.

This final image was a recent ad made by Burger King that received a lot of backlash from consumers. The ad uses sexual references to help build their following and get people to try their new sandwich. This image again reinforces the idea that women are related to two purposes only for food and for sexual activities. Burger King in the add suggests that women are designed to service men, and that their sandwich will make you feel as if you are receiving a sexual favor from a beautiful woman. The image also enforces the idea that women are supposed to wear make up even when eating which can pose many problems especially eating a sandwich like the one presented. In general women have been and are constantly over sexualized in all form of media they are constantly seen as nothing more than just objects with no feelings, similarly to how people view animals as simply food and not like living things. The objectification can be seen as a way for society to systematically oppress women in such as way that they cater to men, remain sexual entities, and can do little to rise above this level of being.